Extraversion and introversion

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Introversion and extraversion are characteristics of personality that illustrate how individuals interact with their surroundings. Carl Jung was the first to coin the term ‘introverted’ in 1909, and since then, numerous psychologists have further explored and expanded on this concept. Extraverts are generally sociable, communicative, and gain energy from social engagement. They thrive in large social settings and may feel unstimulated when alone. Conversely, introverts are contemplative and take pleasure in activities that they can do alone. They are more comfortable in serene environments and can sometimes feel overpowered by too much social interaction. Ambiverts, who display traits of both, sit in the middle of this continuum. Research suggests that the understanding and prevalence of these traits differ, with 33 to 50% of the US population identifying as introverts. The traits are commonly evaluated through self-reporting, peer feedback, and observation by a third party. Both genetic elements and environmental factors contribute to an individual’s degree of introversion or extraversion.

Extraversion and introversion are a central trait dimension in human personality theory. The terms were introduced into psychology by Carl Jung, though both the popular understanding and current psychological usage are not the same as Jung's original concept. Extraversion (also spelled extroversion) tends to be manifested in outgoing, talkative, energetic behavior, whereas introversion is manifested in more reflective and reserved behavior. Jung defined introversion as an "attitude-type characterised by orientation in life through subjective psychic contents", and extraversion as "an attitude-type characterised by concentration of interest on the external object".

Behavioral and psychological characteristics distinguishing introversion and extraversion, which are generally conceived as lying along a continuum.

Extraversion and introversion are typically viewed as a single continuum, so to be higher in one necessitates being lower in the other. Jung provides a different perspective and suggests that everyone has both an extraverted side and an introverted side, with one being more dominant than the other. Virtually all comprehensive models of personality include these concepts in various forms. Examples include the Big Five model, Jung's analytical psychology, Hans Eysenck's three-factor model, Raymond Cattell's 16 personality factors, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, and the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator.

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