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Geo-fencing, a location-oriented technology developed by Michael Dimino in the early 1990s, leverages GPS, mobile devices, and alarm systems to establish a virtual barrier or “fence” for tracking and identifying movement. It functions in two distinct modes: Active, which continuously utilizes GPS, and Passive, which operates inconspicuously without constant GPS engagement. Geo-fencing finds extensive application in numerous fields such as law enforcement, safety measures, workplace administration, and targeted marketing. It enables precise targeting using various methods including zip codes, residential addresses, GPS coordinates, and IP targeting. Moreover, geo-fencing carries considerable legal weight, a topic often debated at international security conferences. Its use in high-profile incidents, like the Capitol Riot, is well-documented. Despite its technical complexity, geo-fencing is user-friendly and is commonly integrated into smart home systems and other consumer-oriented applications.

Geo-fence (Wikipedia)

A geofence is a virtual perimeter for a real-world geographic area. A geofence can be dynamically generated (as in a radius around a point location) or match a predefined set of boundaries (such as school zones or neighborhood boundaries).

Two geofences defined in a GPS application

The use of a geofence is called geofencing, and one example of use involves a location-aware device of a location-based service (LBS) user entering or exiting a geofence. Geofencing approach is based on the observation that users move from one place to another and then stay at that place for a while. This method combines awareness of the user's current location with awareness of the user's proximity to locations that may be of interest. This activity could trigger an alert to the device's user as well as messaging to the geofence operator. This info, which could contain the location of the device, could be sent to a mobile telephone or an email account.

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