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Geotargeting is a method employed to provide customized content or ads to users based on their geographic location. This location data can be gleaned from the user’s shared details or by tracking their IP address. Renowned companies such as Ace Hardware, FedEx, and UPS utilize geotargeting to offer location-specific content like nearby store locations or services unique to a region. It is also a tool used in Search Engine Optimization (SEO), where a technique called cloaking is used to match a visitor’s IP with the list of IPs from the search engine server. Geotargeting boasts a range of uses, from content localization for international domains to targeted advertising[1] and fraud prevention. However, its use has sparked discussions among SEO professionals and raised concerns over privacy.

Terms definitions
1. targeted advertising. Targeted advertising is an advertising strategy that prioritizes the delivery of promotional content to distinct audience groups. This approach relies on the collection and examination of user information to customize advertisements based on people's interests, actions, and demographic characteristics. Targeted advertising can take various forms, including tracking website visits by internet service providers, search engine marketing, and leveraging platforms such as Google's Search and Display Network.This strategy also finds its application in social media, where platforms employ behavioral targeting and geotargeting. For example, Facebook practices micro-targeting using user information. Furthermore, there are numerous techniques for targeted advertising, encompassing content, contextual, technical, time, sociodemographic, and geographical targeting.Targeted advertising is also widespread in the mobile and television industries. Mobile advertisements take advantage of consumer location and timing, whereas television advertisements concentrate on demographics and interests. Cable boxes and over-the-top video platforms further enable targeted advertising. The primary goal of these techniques is to enhance the effectiveness and relevance of advertising.
Geotargeting (Wikipedia)

In geomarketing and internet marketing, geotargeting is the method of delivering different content to visitors based on their geolocation. This includes country, region/state, city, metro code/zip code, organization, IP address, ISP, or other criteria. A common usage of geotargeting is found in online advertising, as well as internet television with sites such as iPlayer and Hulu. In these circumstances, content is often restricted to users geolocated in specific countries; this approach serves as a means of implementing digital rights management. Use of proxy servers and virtual private networks may give a false location.

Wikimedia banner as example of geotargeting for its donation drive, here specifically targeting Netherlands.
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