Intelligent agent

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A component of artificial intelligence[1] known as an intelligent agent, perceives its surroundings via sensors and interacts with them through actuators. These entities are engineered to optimize the value of a performance metric based on their prior experiences and acquired knowledge. Not merely reactive, they can adjust to environmental alterations and proactively strive to accomplish predetermined objectives. Intelligent agents can be categorized into various types, such as simple reflex agents, model-based reflex agents, goal-based agents, utility-based agents, and learning agents. They are utilized in a wide range of applications, including the creation of autonomous systems, software agents, and in the execution of cognitive science research. Intelligent agents provide a methodical approach for testing and contrasting various AI programs, simultaneously bridging the divide between AI and economics.

Terms definitions
1. artificial intelligence. The discipline of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a subset of computer science dedicated to developing systems capable of executing tasks usually requiring human intellect, such as reasoning, learning, planning, perception, and language comprehension. Drawing upon diverse fields such as psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and neuroscience, AI is instrumental in the creation of machine learning models and natural language processing systems. It also significantly contributes to the development of virtual assistants and affective computing systems. AI finds applications in numerous sectors like healthcare, industry, government, and education. However, it also brings up ethical and societal issues, thus requiring regulatory policies. With the advent of sophisticated techniques like deep learning and generative AI, the field continues to expand, opening up new avenues in various sectors.
Intelligent agent (Wikipedia)

In intelligence and artificial intelligence, an intelligent agent (IA) is an agent acting in an intelligent manner; It perceives its environment, takes actions autonomously in order to achieve goals, and may improve its performance with learning or acquiring knowledge. An intelligent agent may be simple or complex: A thermostat or other control system is considered an example of an intelligent agent, as is a human being, as is any system that meets the definition, such as a firm, a state, or a biome.

Simple reflex agent diagram

Leading AI textbooks define "artificial intelligence" as the "study and design of intelligent agents", a definition that considers goal-directed behavior to be the essence of intelligence. Goal-directed agents are also described using a term borrowed from economics, "rational agent".

An agent has an "objective function" that encapsulates all the IA's goals. Such an agent is designed to create and execute whatever plan will, upon completion, maximize the expected value of the objective function. For example, a reinforcement learning agent has a "reward function" that allows the programmers to shape the IA's desired behavior, and an evolutionary algorithm's behavior is shaped by a "fitness function".

Intelligent agents in artificial intelligence are closely related to agents in economics, and versions of the intelligent agent paradigm are studied in cognitive science, ethics, the philosophy of practical reason, as well as in many interdisciplinary socio-cognitive modeling and computer social simulations.

Intelligent agents are often described schematically as an abstract functional system similar to a computer program. Abstract descriptions of intelligent agents are called abstract intelligent agents (AIA) to distinguish them from their real-world implementations. An autonomous intelligent agent is designed to function in the absence of human intervention. Intelligent agents are also closely related to software agents (an autonomous computer program that carries out tasks on behalf of users).

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