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The Internet, a global network of interconnected computer systems, utilizes standardized communication protocols, predominantly TCP/IP, to connect devices across the globe. The term ‘Internet’ has its roots in the 1849 term ‘internetted’ and was later adopted by the US War Department in 1945. The inception of the Internet can be traced back to the 1960s when computer scientists developed time-sharing systems, which eventually led to the creation of ARPANET in 1969. The Internet operates autonomously, without any central control, and the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) manages its primary name spaces. It has revolutionized traditional communication methods and has seen an exponential growth, with the number of internet users growing by 20% to 50% every year. In 2019, more than half of the global population was using the Internet. The Internet protocol[1] suite, comprising TCP/IP and four conceptual layers, directs internet packets to their intended destinations. Fundamental services such as email[2] and Internet telephony function on the Internet. The World Wide Web, an extensive network of interconnected documents, serves as a crucial element of the Internet.

Terms definitions
1. Internet Protocol ( Internet protocol ) The Internet Protocol (IP) is a vital technology that fuels the internet. This protocol establishes the regulations for transmitting data over a network. It handles the assignment of addresses to host interfaces, the encapsulation of data into 'datagrams', and the routing of these datagrams across different networks. IP employs a unique packet structure and addressing scheme. A key feature of its operation is the sourcing and targeting of IP addresses. Over time, the IP has evolved through several versions, such as IPv4 and IPv6, with the latter offering expansive 128-bit addresses. Despite being deemed unreliable due to network infrastructure, the IP strives to deliver 'best-effort delivery'. It also contributes to the management of link capacity and data transmission, including data packet sizes. As the years pass, the security and evolution of IP have emerged as crucial aspects, with ongoing initiatives to tackle vulnerabilities and suggest improvements.
2. email. Email, a vital communication tool since its introduction in 1975, has become an integral part of our daily lives. This system functions over computer networks and the internet, enabling global message transmission and reception. While 'email' is the commonly accepted term in style guides, variations such as 'E-mail' are occasionally used, especially in American and British English contexts. The process of this system includes a sender composing a message via a Mail User Agent (MUA), which then sends it to the recipient's mail exchange server. The recipient's MUA subsequently retrieves the message. Thanks to the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME), emails can now include multimedia content. For safety, email systems employ a store-and-forward model, whereby email servers receive, forward, store, and deliver messages. This method facilitates email exchanges without requiring users to be online simultaneously.
Internet (Wikipedia)

The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the interlinked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.

The origins of the Internet date back to research to enable time-sharing of computer resources and the development of packet switching in the 1960s. The set of rules (communication protocols) to enable internetworking on the Internet arose from research and development commissioned in the 1970s by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the United States Department of Defense in collaboration with universities and researchers across the United States and in the United Kingdom and France. The ARPANET initially served as a backbone for the interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the United States to enable resource sharing. The funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, encouraged worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies and the merger of many networks using DARPA's Internet protocol suite. The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s, as well as the advent of the World Wide Web, marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, and generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional, personal, and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was widely used by academia in the 1980s, the subsequent commercialization in the 1990s and beyond incorporated its services and technologies into virtually every aspect of modern life.

Most traditional communication media, including telephone, radio, television, paper mail, and newspapers, are reshaped, redefined, or even bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephone, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, and video streaming websites. Newspaper, book, and other print publishing have adapted to website technology or have been reshaped into blogging, web feeds, and online news aggregators. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interaction through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking services. Online shopping has grown exponentially for major retailers, small businesses, and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or even sell goods and services entirely online. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.

The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own policies. The overarching definitions of the two principal name spaces on the Internet, the Internet Protocol address (IP address) space and the Domain Name System (DNS), are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of the New Seven Wonders.

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