Binary number

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The binary number system is a numerical representation method that uses only two symbols, commonly 0 and 1. This system, which was studied by scholars such as Thomas Harriot and Gottfried Leibniz in the 16th and 17th centuries, has roots in ancient civilizations like Egypt, China, and India. The binary system plays a crucial role in various arithmetic operations, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Counting and representation in binary systems involve bit sequences, which can also be subjected to mathematical operations, with distinct methods for multiplication, long division, and square root calculations. The binary system is of paramount importance in the fields of computer science and digital electronics, offering a more straightforward and efficient alternative to decimal arithmetic. It underpins computer programming and is indispensable for digital media[1], internet[2] protocols, encryption, cybersecurity, and accurate data storage and manipulation.

Terms definitions
1. digital media. Digital media, a term that denotes any media form that utilizes electronic devices for its dissemination, encompasses a broad spectrum of components such as software, digital images, digital videos, video games, web pages, and websites. These elements can be created, observed, altered, and disseminated via digital electronic devices. The prominence of digital media grew with the advent of digital computers, which facilitated the binary representation of information. As the years have passed, digital media has undergone significant evolution, leading to substantial societal and cultural transformations. It has also exerted a profound influence on diverse sectors like journalism, publishing, education, and entertainment. Concurrently, digital media has spawned new trends and posed legal challenges, particularly concerning copyright laws. The consumption of digital media has seen a swift surge due to increased internet access and the emergence of various social media platforms.
2. internet. The Internet, a global network of interconnected computer systems, utilizes standardized communication protocols, predominantly TCP/IP, to connect devices across the globe. The term 'Internet' has its roots in the 1849 term 'internetted' and was later adopted by the US War Department in 1945. The inception of the Internet can be traced back to the 1960s when computer scientists developed time-sharing systems, which eventually led to the creation of ARPANET in 1969. The Internet operates autonomously, without any central control, and the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) manages its primary name spaces. It has revolutionized traditional communication methods and has seen an exponential growth, with the number of internet users growing by 20% to 50% every year. In 2019, more than half of the global population was using the Internet. The Internet protocol suite, comprising TCP/IP and four conceptual layers, directs internet packets to their intended destinations. Fundamental services such as email and Internet telephony function on the Internet. The World Wide Web, an extensive network of interconnected documents, serves as a crucial element of the Internet.
Binary number (Wikipedia)

A binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, a method of mathematical expression which uses only two symbols: typically "0" (zero) and "1" (one).

The base-2 numeral system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Each digit is referred to as a bit, or binary digit. Because of its straightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates, the binary system is used by almost all modern computers and computer-based devices, as a preferred system of use, over various other human techniques of communication, because of the simplicity of the language and the noise immunity in physical implementation.

Negative numbers are commonly represented in binary using two's complement.

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