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Disinformation, a term rooted in the Proto-Indo-European language family, is the deliberate propagation of inaccurate or misleading data, typically for political or sociocultural manipulation. This practice gained prominence in the 1980s and has been the focus of comprehensive research to decipher its origins, techniques, and effects. Disinformation is frequently employed in deceptive strategies on social platforms and is distinct from misinformation and malinformation. It’s prevalent in political contexts, often muddling citizens and disheartening their participation. Disinformation has worldwide consequences, utilized by governments, NGOs, and global businesses. It poses a threat to the integrity of elections and can instigate societal rifts. Entities like NATO and the EU have implemented various strategies to tackle this problem. The exploration of disinformation also encompasses ethical aspects and its application in warfare. Despite these initiatives, disinformation continues to be a persistent issue due to its ubiquitous presence and the challenge in gauging its real impact.

Disinformation (Wikipedia)

Disinformation is false information deliberately spread to deceive people. Disinformation is an orchestrated adversarial activity in which actors employ strategic deceptions and media manipulation tactics to advance political, military, or commercial goals. Disinformation is implemented through attacks that "weaponize multiple rhetorical strategies and forms of knowing—including not only falsehoods but also truths, half-truths, and value judgements—to exploit and amplify culture wars and other identity-driven controversies."

In contrast, misinformation refers to inaccuracies that stem from inadvertent error. Misinformation can be used to create disinformation when known misinformation is purposefully and intentionally disseminated. "Fake news" has sometimes been categorized as a type of disinformation, but scholars have advised not using these two terms interchangeably or using "fake news" altogether in academic writing since politicians have weaponized it to describe any unfavorable news coverage or information.

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