Fake news website

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Fake News[2] Websites denote those online platforms that intentionally circulate inaccurate, deceptive, or sensationalized content, often masquerading as legitimate news. These sites frequently use eye-catching headlines to lure readers and boost click-through rates, predominantly to amass online ad revenue. They can profoundly affect society, especially in the political sphere, where they can manipulate public sentiment and propagate untruths. Aware of the risks, tech behemoths, global leaders, and numerous institutions are striving to curb the spread of these websites. Renowned purveyors of such misleading content hail from nations like Russia, North Macedonia, Romania, and the United States. The worldwide influence of fake news websites is extensive, affecting occurrences in countries ranging from China and Germany to the United States. Various global actions, both legislative and executive, are being implemented in response to the emergence of these disinformation[1] sites.

Terms definitions
1. disinformation. Disinformation, a term rooted in the Proto-Indo-European language family, is the deliberate propagation of inaccurate or misleading data, typically for political or sociocultural manipulation. This practice gained prominence in the 1980s and has been the focus of comprehensive research to decipher its origins, techniques, and effects. Disinformation is frequently employed in deceptive strategies on social platforms and is distinct from misinformation and malinformation. It's prevalent in political contexts, often muddling citizens and disheartening their participation. Disinformation has worldwide consequences, utilized by governments, NGOs, and global businesses. It poses a threat to the integrity of elections and can instigate societal rifts. Entities like NATO and the EU have implemented various strategies to tackle this problem. The exploration of disinformation also encompasses ethical aspects and its application in warfare. Despite these initiatives, disinformation continues to be a persistent issue due to its ubiquitous presence and the challenge in gauging its real impact.
2. Fake news ( Fake News ) False news, also known as fake news, is the distribution of incorrect or completely deceptive information, which is framed as genuine news. This phrase gained widespread recognition in 2017 and is frequently utilized for political or financial advantages. False news encompasses a range of misleading content, including hoaxes, alternative facts, and misinformation, but is not confined to these. While satirical sites may self-identify as sources of fake news, it can also be encountered on news aggregators and political websites. The proliferation of false news can erode faith in authentic news outlets and skew public perception of significant matters. Measures to counter false news can include self-regulation, legal regulation, individual intervention, and the application of technologies such as artificial intelligence. Identifying false news requires vigilance for indicators like clickbait, propaganda, and media bias. Resources such as fact-checking websites and media literacy programs can assist individuals in distinguishing between genuine and false news.
Fake news website (Wikipedia)

Fake news websites (also referred to as hoax news websites) are websites on the Internet that deliberately publish fake newshoaxes, propaganda, and disinformation purporting to be real news—often using social media to drive web traffic and amplify their effect. Unlike news satire, fake news websites deliberately seek to be perceived as legitimate and taken at face value, often for financial or political gain. Such sites have promoted political falsehoods in India, Germany, Indonesia and the Philippines, Sweden, Mexico, Myanmar, and the United States. Many sites originate in, or are promoted by, Russia, or North Macedonia among others . Some media analysts have seen them as a threat to democracy. In 2016, the European Parliament's Committee on Foreign Affairs passed a resolution warning that the Russian government was using "pseudo-news agencies" and Internet trolls as disinformation propaganda to weaken confidence in democratic values.

In 2015, the Swedish Security Service, Sweden's national security agency, issued a report concluding Russia was using fake news to inflame "splits in society" through the proliferation of propaganda. Sweden's Ministry of Defence tasked its Civil Contingencies Agency with combating fake news from Russia. Fraudulent news affected politics in Indonesia and the Philippines, where there was simultaneously widespread usage of social media and limited resources to check the veracity of political claims. German Chancellor Angela Merkel warned of the societal impact of "fake sites, bots, trolls".

Fraudulent articles spread through social media during the 2016 U.S. presidential election, and several officials within the U.S. Intelligence Community said that Russia was engaged in spreading fake news. Computer security company FireEye concluded that Russia used social media to spread fake news stories as part of a cyberwarfare campaign. Google and Facebook banned fake sites from using online advertising. Facebook launched a partnership with fact-checking websites to flag fraudulent news and hoaxes; debunking organizations that joined the initiative included: Snopes.com, FactCheck.org, and PolitiFact. U.S. President Barack Obama said a disregard for facts created a "dust cloud of nonsense". Chief of the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) Alex Younger called fake news propaganda online dangerous for democratic nations.

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