Domain name

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Domain names are textual identifiers that signify internet[2] resources, including computers and services. They symbolize ownership or control of a resource and offer a memorable name for these entities. The structure of a domain name consists of labels concatenated and separated by dots, arranged in a hierarchy from right to left. Each label can hold 1 to 63 octets, and the total domain name should not go beyond 253 ASCII characters. The Domain Name System[1] (DNS) converts these domain names into IP addresses, aiding in the distribution of web traffic among various servers. Organized in a tree structure, domain names have Top-Level Domains (TLDs) like .com, .org, .net at the topmost level. The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) manages the allocation of TLDs and accredits domain registrars. Domain names can also be internationalized, with numerous registries adopting the Internationalized domain name (IDNA) system approved by ICANN. The domain name sector is vulnerable to cyber threats such as spoofing, but protective measures are in place.

Terms definitions
1. Domain Name System ( Domain Name System ) The Domain Name System (DNS) is an essential component of the internet's framework. It acts as an interpreter between user-friendly hostnames and numeric IP addresses, facilitating swift and efficient access to websites and digital services. The DNS, which originated as a straightforward mapping system during the ARPANET era, has evolved into a sophisticated hierarchical structure indispensable for cloud services and content delivery networks. Protocols such as UDP and TCP are utilized by the DNS to ensure reliable, secure, and private connections. It also maintains a variety of record types, including SOA, A, AAAA, MX, NS, PTR, and CNAME, traditionally housed in a zone file. These records are vital for the functioning of distributed Internet services. The DNS enhances user experience by allocating nearby servers for quicker responses. Its structure mirrors the internet's administrative responsibility, with autonomous zones delegated to managers for each subdomain.
2. internet. The Internet, a global network of interconnected computer systems, utilizes standardized communication protocols, predominantly TCP/IP, to connect devices across the globe. The term 'Internet' has its roots in the 1849 term 'internetted' and was later adopted by the US War Department in 1945. The inception of the Internet can be traced back to the 1960s when computer scientists developed time-sharing systems, which eventually led to the creation of ARPANET in 1969. The Internet operates autonomously, without any central control, and the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) manages its primary name spaces. It has revolutionized traditional communication methods and has seen an exponential growth, with the number of internet users growing by 20% to 50% every year. In 2019, more than half of the global population was using the Internet. The Internet protocol suite, comprising TCP/IP and four conceptual layers, directs internet packets to their intended destinations. Fundamental services such as email and Internet telephony function on the Internet. The World Wide Web, an extensive network of interconnected documents, serves as a crucial element of the Internet.
Domain name (Wikipedia)

In the Internet, a domain name is a string that identifies a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control. Domain names are often used to identify services provided through the Internet, such as websites, email services and more. Domain names are used in various networking contexts and for application-specific naming and addressing purposes. In general, a domain name identifies a network domain or an Internet Protocol (IP) resource, such as a personal computer used to access the Internet, or a server computer.

An annotated example of a domain name

Domain names are formed by the rules and procedures of the Domain Name System (DNS). Any name registered in the DNS is a domain name. Domain names are organized in subordinate levels (subdomains) of the DNS root domain, which is nameless. The first-level set of domain names are the top-level domains (TLDs), including the generic top-level domains (gTLDs), such as the prominent domains com, info, net, edu, and org, and the country code top-level domains (ccTLDs). Below these top-level domains in the DNS hierarchy are the second-level and third-level domain names that are typically open for reservation by end-users who wish to connect local area networks to the Internet, create other publicly accessible Internet resources or run websites. The registration of a second- or third-level domain name is usually administered by a domain name registrar who sell its services to the public.

A fully qualified domain name (FQDN) is a domain name that is completely specified with all labels in the hierarchy of the DNS, having no parts omitted. Traditionally a FQDN ends in a dot (.) to denote the top of the DNS tree. Labels in the Domain Name System are case-insensitive, and may therefore be written in any desired capitalization method, but most commonly domain names are written in lowercase in technical contexts.

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