File Transfer Protocol

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FTP, short for File Transfer Protocol, is an established network protocol that facilitates file transmission over the internet[1]. Abhay Bhushan is credited with its development, having first introduced it as RFC114 in 1971. This protocol enables a connection between a server and a client, paving the way for data transfer. It functions in both active and passive modes, responding with three-digit status codes. However, FTP is not naturally secure, with known vulnerabilities like susceptibility to FTP bounce and brute-force attacks. Over time, FTP has adapted to support extended passive mode and IPv6. Secure FTP alternatives like SSH FTP and SFTP have also been developed. FTP servers can be accessed via different software applications, FTP URLs, and web browsers.

Terms definitions
1. internet. The Internet, a global network of interconnected computer systems, utilizes standardized communication protocols, predominantly TCP/IP, to connect devices across the globe. The term 'Internet' has its roots in the 1849 term 'internetted' and was later adopted by the US War Department in 1945. The inception of the Internet can be traced back to the 1960s when computer scientists developed time-sharing systems, which eventually led to the creation of ARPANET in 1969. The Internet operates autonomously, without any central control, and the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) manages its primary name spaces. It has revolutionized traditional communication methods and has seen an exponential growth, with the number of internet users growing by 20% to 50% every year. In 2019, more than half of the global population was using the Internet. The Internet protocol suite, comprising TCP/IP and four conceptual layers, directs internet packets to their intended destinations. Fundamental services such as email and Internet telephony function on the Internet. The World Wide Web, an extensive network of interconnected documents, serves as a crucial element of the Internet.

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard communication protocol used for the transfer of computer files from a server to a client on a computer network. FTP is built on a client–server model architecture using separate control and data connections between the client and the server. FTP users may authenticate themselves with a plain-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it. For secure transmission that protects the username and password, and encrypts the content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS (FTPS) or replaced with SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP).

File Transfer Protocol
Communication protocol
PurposeFile transfer
Developer(s)Abhay Bhushan for RFC 114
IntroductionApril 16, 1971; 53 years ago (1971-04-16)
OSI layerApplication layer
Port(s)21 for control, 20 for data transfer
RFC(s)RFC 959

The first FTP client applications were command-line programs developed before operating systems had graphical user interfaces, and are still shipped with most Windows, Unix, and Linux operating systems. Many dedicated FTP clients and automation utilities have since been developed for desktops, servers, mobile devices, and hardware, and FTP has been incorporated into productivity applications such as HTML editors and file managers.

An FTP client used to be commonly integrated in web browsers, where file servers are browsed with the URI prefix "ftp://". In 2021, FTP support was dropped by Google Chrome and Firefox, two major web browser vendors, due to it being superseded by the more secure SFTP and FTPS; although neither of them have implemented the newer protocols.

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