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HTML, standing for HyperText Markup Language, is the bedrock of the modern internet[1]. It was first introduced by Tim Berners-Lee in the 1980s and has seen numerous transformations and enhancements over the years. HTML is crucial for organizing web content, encompassing everything from the text we peruse to the multimedia we engage with. Different editions of HTML, including HTML 2.0, HTML 3.2, and HTML 4.0, have been released throughout the years, each one improving and broadening the scope of its predecessor. The latest version, HTML5, was standardized in 2014 and brought with it a plethora of new features such as support for video and audio, local storage options, and additional semantic elements. HTML is also vital for SEO (Search Engine Optimization) and digital accessibility.

Terms definitions
1. internet. The Internet, a global network of interconnected computer systems, utilizes standardized communication protocols, predominantly TCP/IP, to connect devices across the globe. The term 'Internet' has its roots in the 1849 term 'internetted' and was later adopted by the US War Department in 1945. The inception of the Internet can be traced back to the 1960s when computer scientists developed time-sharing systems, which eventually led to the creation of ARPANET in 1969. The Internet operates autonomously, without any central control, and the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) manages its primary name spaces. It has revolutionized traditional communication methods and has seen an exponential growth, with the number of internet users growing by 20% to 50% every year. In 2019, more than half of the global population was using the Internet. The Internet protocol suite, comprising TCP/IP and four conceptual layers, directs internet packets to their intended destinations. Fundamental services such as email and Internet telephony function on the Internet. The World Wide Web, an extensive network of interconnected documents, serves as a crucial element of the Internet.
HTML (Wikipedia)

HyperText Markup Language or HTML is the standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser. It defines the content and structure of web content. It is often assisted by technologies such as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and scripting languages such as JavaScript.

(HyperText Markup Language)
The official logo of the latest version, HTML5
Filename extension
  • .html
  • .htm
Internet media type
Type codeTEXT
Uniform Type Identifier (UTI)public.html
Developed by
Initial release1993; 31 years ago (1993)
Latest release
Type of formatDocument file format
Container forHTML elements
Contained byWeb browser
Extended fromSGML
Extended toXHTML
Open format?Yes

Web browsers receive HTML documents from a web server or from local storage and render the documents into multimedia web pages. HTML describes the structure of a web page semantically and originally included cues for its appearance.

HTML elements are the building blocks of HTML pages. With HTML constructs, images and other objects such as interactive forms may be embedded into the rendered page. HTML provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes, and other items. HTML elements are delineated by tags, written using angle brackets. Tags such as <img> and <input> directly introduce content into the page. Other tags such as <p> and </p> surround and provide information about document text and may include sub-element tags. Browsers do not display the HTML tags but use them to interpret the content of the page.

HTML can embed programs written in a scripting language such as JavaScript, which affects the behavior and content of web pages. The inclusion of CSS defines the look and layout of content. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), former maintainer of the HTML and current maintainer of the CSS standards, has encouraged the use of CSS over explicit presentational HTML since 1997. A form of HTML, known as HTML5, is used to display video and audio, primarily using the <canvas> element, together with JavaScript.

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